PCR-based detections standardised during the period
- Escherichia coli: E. coli isolates are frequently recovered from colibacillosis, enteritis and clinical as well as non-clinical cases of livestock and poultry. Serotyping of E. coli isolates revealed that, O6, O8, O9, O65, O101, O107 O24, O62, O25, O1, O91, O9, O127, O87, O117, O711, O172, O101, O87, O103, O2, O15, O5, O4, O88, O166, O156, O18, O11, O89, O18, O27 O25, O132, O89, O22, O3, O2, O25 and O117 serotypes are more commonly encountered. PCR assay was standardized for detection of virulent genes such as stx1, stx2, hly, est, elt genes etc. Plasmid profiling study of E. coli isolates were also carried out
- Salmonella spp.: Different Salmonella spp. were recovered from clinical samples of poultry, ducks, pig, humans as well as from the foods of livestock and poultry origin where Salmonella Typhimurium was more commonly reported. Besides these, S. Enteritidies, S. Bareilly and S. Kentucky were also recovered. PCR based assay for detection of virulent gene such as stn, fimA, invA, sopB, sopE, pefA and sefC was standardized.
- Clostridium perfringens: PCR based diagnostic protocol was standardized for identification of Cl. perfringenes based on detection of toxin genes such as cpa , cpb2. The protocol was also used for diagnosis of Clostridial infection in cattle, goat, pig, poultry and rabbit.
- Pasteurella multocida: PCR based method for detection of Pasteurella multocidaserotype B:2, the causal agent of hemorrhagic septicemia in cattle was standardized and employed. The bacterial isolates from morbid lung sample of pig were identified as P. multocida , whichwere serotyped by Multiplex Capsular PCR Typing. The laboratory findings showed the presence of P. multocida serotype D which was confirmed by detection of P. multocida specific dcbF gene (657 bp) by PCR.
- Bovine herpes virus: PCR assay was standardized for detection of Glycoprotein C gene of Bovine herpes virus 1, the causal agent of IBR in cattle.
- Aeromonas hydrophila: A. hydrophila was isolated from pork, beef, mutton, chicken and fish samples. For rapid detection and characterization, PCR based assay was standardized by targeting 16S RNA and toxic genes such as ahh1, asa1, aerA .
- Listeria monocytogenes: L. monocytogenes were recovered from clinical as well as food samples including beef, pork, chicken and mutton. Virulent genes such as plcA, plcB, hly, iap were targeted using various specific primers for detection of pathogenic Listeria spp.
- Brucella spp.: A PCR based method was standardized for detection of B. abortus and other Brucella spp. by detecting 31 KDa OMP gene. PCR was also standardized for detection of B. abortus, B. melitensis and B. suis based on the detection of repetitive genetic element IS711.
- Campylobacter spp.: PCR protocol was standardized for detection of Campylobacter spp. based on the detection of 16S RNA, cdtA, cdtB, cdtC, flaA , cadF (Campylobacter Adhesion to Fibronectin F), racR (Reduce Ability to Colonize R), virB11 and pldA (Phospholipase A) genes. Another PCR protocol was standardized using published primer sequence of hip O gene for differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli.