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Animal Health

Epizootiological & patho-physiological studies on diseases

Isolation of Aeromonas hydrophila from fish: Aeromonas hydrophila, a causative agent of fin rot, haemorrhagic septicaemia, ulcerative syndrome or dropsy in freshwater fish, has also been reported to cause septicemia and gastroenteritis in man and animals. To assess the quantum of problem in fish of North Eastern region of India, a total of 305 fish samples comprising fish meat, fish intestine, fish liver, fish gill, dry fish and fermented fish were screened for the presence of A. hydrophila. 7.54% of the samples were found positive for A. hydrophila. Plasmid analysis showed the presence of single plasmid at around 23kb in all isolates. The isolates were also screened using published primers for presence of 16S rRNA gene and virulence-associated aerA, ahh1 and asa1 genes, which encode for aerolysin and haemolysin proteins. Out of 23 isolates, 13 showed the presence of 16S rRNA, ahh1gene, 2 for aerA and 1 for asa1gene .

Plasmid profiling and RAPD (Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) analysis of Aeromonas isolates: The alkali-lysis method of plasmid DNA isolation resulted in high yield of plasmids. Eighty six percent Aeromonas isolates contained plasmid DNA of varying sizes ranging from 23.13 to 2.0 Kb. The RAPD analysis revealed that amplicon sizes ranged from 250 bp to 2.9 Kb with a common >250 bp fragments in all the isolates and 75% similarity was observed in all the representative isolates.

Detection of E.coli in water samples: A total of 60 water samples from different sources were collected aseptically from Guwahati city and were screened for the presence of E. coli. Out of these, 20 samples were positive for E. coli. The serotyping of the isolates revealed the predominance of serotype O14 (10, 50% isolates) followed by O28 (7, 35% isolates) and O147 (1, 5% isolate). The presence of drug resistant E. coli serotypes in potable water is of public health concern in the region. Plasmid analysis of the 20 isolates showed the presence of two types of plasmid (Approx. MW 23 and 9 Kb) in 10 of the isolates . A total of 60 faecal samples (cattle, pig, goat and poultry) and 30 pond water samples from different farming systems were screened for zoonotic pathogens. Samples were screened for important enteric pathogens such as Salmonella, E.coli, Aeromonas, Vibrio spp. A total of 26 E. coli from animal faecal and pond water samples and 2 Aeromonas spp. from pond water samples were isolated. Stx2 gene positive E. coli were detected in pond water samples as well as from animals.
Collibacilosis in poultry and goat: Out of 57 samples of intestinal contents from the dead birds, 21 were found positive for Escherichia coli with varying degree of sensitivity for antimicrobials like Ofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Ampicillin, Cephalothin and Sulphafurazole. The E. coli was also isolatedfrom a goat that died after severe gastroeintestinal disturbances and showed excessive haemorrhages in the intestinal mucosa during postmortem . The serotypes encountered were O5, O63, O9, O20, O128, O33, O154, O15, O146, O12 and O160.

Occurrence of zoonotic organisms in products from livestock and poultry: The analysis of 436 meat samples (88 beef, 142 pork, 170 chicken meat and 36 goat meat) revealed that 14 (3.2%) samples were positive for L. monocytogenes, 38 (8.7%) for mesophilic Aeromonas spp., 24 (5.5%) for Salmonella spp., 72 (16.5%) for E. coli and 14 (3.21%) for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. The bacteriological analysis of 99 samples of milk and milk products revealed that 4 (4.04%) samples were contaminated with Salmonella spp., 38 (38.38%) with Staphylococcus aureus, 18 (18.18%) with Streptococcus and 14 (14.14%) with E. coli. The isolates showed a varying degree of sensitivity for various antibiotics with highest sensitivity to enrofloxacin followed by chloramphenicol and tetracycline. The isolates were examined for the presence of various virulence genes to know their pathogenic potential. The PCR based detection methods were used for screening the virulence associated genes viz: hlyA, iap, plcA and plcB genes in L. monocytogenes; stn, invA, fimA, sefC, pefA, sopE and sopB in Salmonella; stx1, stx2, hlyA, est and elt genes in E. coli; ahh1, AH-aerA and asa1 in mesophilic Aeromonas and flaA, iam, cadF, racR, pldA, cdtA, cdtB, cdtC genes in Campylobacter.
Screening of fecal samples for detection of rotavirus using standardized SDS-PAGE and RT-PCR
A total of 42 fecal samples from piglets (35) and goats (7) were collected from different farms located in and around ICAR, Barapani and screened for detection of rotavirus. The dsRNA of rotavirus from fecal samples were extracted by phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol method and subjected to SDS-PAGE. Only 2 samples were found to be positive by SDS-PAGE while 6 samples were found to be positive by RT-PCR including the two, which were positive by SDS-PAGE.

Poxvirus infection in turkey

An outbreak of poxvirus suspected in turkey was reported from the organized poultry farm. The scab samples of the affected birds were collected and inoculated into chorioallantioc membrane (CAM) of 9 day old chicken embryonated eggs. After the third passage in CAM, characteristic pock lesions could be identified this confirms the poxvirus infection.

Screening of medicinal plants and preparation for antimicrobial activity

Interview module was prepared and survey and personal interview was conducted in some villages of Meghalaya, 40 villagers were interviewed including the village headman in Ribhoi-district (Mawpun village and Kyrdem Village), 15 villagers in East Khasi hills (Mawkhan Village, Upper Shillong) and Imphal west, Manipur. As per the information based on personal interview of villagers in Meghalaya it was opined that they rarely depend on indigenous plants for treating ailing animals, which may be due to accessibility of veterinary healthcare. In Imphal west, Manipur used of some plants for treating animals was noticed like Blumea hieracifolia (Ching tera paibi) used in cuts and wounds, Centalla asiatica used in indigestion, Allium porrum (Maroinakupi) for debilitation, Spilanthes oleiracea (Angkasa-Mizo local name) used in dental problem in animals, Adhatoda vesica Nees (Nongmangkha) used for fever in animals.
Screening of some plants and preparation were initiated for its antibacterial properties both by agar diffusion test and minimum inhibitory concentration. Antibacterial properties of the aqueous extracts are being carried out against E.coli, Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus.

Brucellosis and IBR

A total of 35 samples were collected from Yak from west Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh for screening for Brucellosis and IBR. None of the samples was found positive for brucellosis by RBPT while 18 samples were positive for IBR by indirect ELISA kit (IBR).

Treatment of Curl-toe paralysis in chicks:

Two ailing chicks were brought for post-mortem but due to suspect for curl toe paralysis treatment was initiated. 0.2 ml of Neurobion injection was administered i/m for three consecutive days, supplemented by oral feeding of ambiplex (half tea spoon) and water. After successful treatment the bird was sent back to farm on the 5th day.