College of Veterinary Sciences & Animal Husbandry, Central Agricultural University, Selesih, Aizawl, Mizoram

What is the appropriate time for de-worming in pigs and when it is to be repeated?
The de-worming for pigs should be started at 2 months after birth and may be repeated every 3-4 months in backyard rearing system. The pregnant sow and weak pigs should not be de-wormed.

What is the main cause of large consumption of feed but having slow growth?
There could be many reasons but poor management like irregular de-worming, poor sanitation, inferior feed quality, inbreeding etc. could be the reasons for restarted growth and large consumption of feed.

How can occurrence of mastitis in cattle be prevented?
This could do be ne by observing strict hygienic measures while milking. The following procedures may be observed:

What is the right time of de-worming in cattle?
De-worming is done first at 1 month in calves and repeated at 6 months and then yearly.

How do we prevent egg eating by layer birds?
The best way to prevent is by debeaking (cutting the 1/3 of the upper beak i.e. between the tip of beak and its nostrils by using electrically operated debeaking machine, in absence of it clipper can be used).

Is it safe to administer the antimicrobial drugs in animals to be slaughter for meat purposes?
While using antimicrobial drugs in animals for meat purposes, it is always advice to follow the withdrawal period of the drugs.  Otherwise, the drug residue in meat may produces unwanted effects in human being or it may also induces antimicrobial drug resistance to the microbes which poses a great treat to the human and allow to evolve a new resistant strain of microbial population.

Why the dosage regimen of the antimicrobial/antibiotic drug is required to be followed very strictly?
The antimicrobial drugs are given for a specific duration which is called dosage regimen.  The dosage regimens of these drugs are strictly to be followed because when the drug inhibit/kill some of the microbes and relieve the fever; but some of the microbes at the infection site may still be available which may start growing and increase the number of population. If the antimicrobial is stopped before the stipulated scheduled time, it is likely that there will be recurring of the infection and also there is chances of antimicrobial resistance development among the microbial population.

In which group of muscle the disease black quarter is mostly noticed?
Thigh and neck muscle of 6 month to 2 years age group.

What is breed able age and body weight of the animals preferably considered for breeding?
The body weight of the heifer is given more weightage than age for breeding activities. According to different breed & species of animals, breed, age and body weight differs for breeding purposes.

Sl No. Species/breed Age Body weight
Deshi Heifer 2 ½ Years 180 – 200 Kg
C B Heifer 1 ½ Years 230 Kg
C B Murra Buffalo 2 Years 250-280 Kg
Pig 1 Year Different as per species & types
Sheep/goat ¾ Years Different as per species & types
Dog 1 ½ Year Different as per species & types

In order to maintain clean milk production, what precaution measures are to be taken?
Cleanliness of cow, cow shed, cow owner, milk can, etc. can prevent contamination of milk for clean milk production.